Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR)
The number of aircraft simultaneously provided with ATS surveillance services by a radar controller do not exceed that which can safely be handled under the prevailing circumstances, taking into account:
- The structural complexity of the control area or sector concerned;
- The functions to be performed within the control area or sector concerned;
- Assessment of controller workloads, taking into account different aircraft capabilities, and sector capacity; and
- The degree of technical reliability and availability of the primary and backup communications, navigation and surveillance systems, both in the aircraft and on the ground.
The Radar systems available in Nairobi FIR are:Primary radar,Secondary radar and the surface movement radar.
To cover the whole of Nairobi FIR; Primary and Secondary radar stations are integrated to provide a full picture of the whole airspace.
Radar service is provided 24 hours within Nairobi Flight Information Region. Three types of Air Traffic Radar Services available within the coverage of air traffic radar systems:
- Radar Control Service, provided to aircraft operating in controlled airspace,
- Radar Advisory Service, provided to aircraft operating in advisory airspace; and,
- Radar Information Service, provided to aircraft operating outside controlled and advisory airspace
Terminal Approach radar Service is provided 24 HRS in NAIROBI TMA and MOMBASA TMA for training, arriving and departing traffic.
Plans are underway to provide Radar Service in ELDORET TMA and WAJIR TMA.
Surface Movement Radar (SMR)
Available at JKIA, this is radar equipment designed to detect all principal features on the surface of an airport, including aircraft and vehicular traffic, and to present the entire image on a situation display in the control tower. It is used to augment visual observation by tower personnel of aircraft and/or vehicular movements on runways and taxiways.
This is very useful during some specific period within a year when JKIA experiences conditions of almost zero visibility due to low clouds in the morning, and to cope with this hazard, the SMR augments the ATCs sense of situational awareness.
Automatic Dependant Surveillance-Contract
Is a means by which the terms of an ADS-C agreement will be exchanged between the ground systems and the aircraft, via data link, specifying under what conditions ADS-C reports would be initiated, and what data would be contained in the reports.
ADS-C uses the same systems on board the aircraft to automatically transmit information (which includes-aircraft position, flight level, speed, elements of navigational intent and meteorological data) to ATSU for surveillance and /or route conformance monitoring.
Nairobi FIR utilizes this technology in Oceanic airspace in conjunction with CDPLC as the primary mode of communication.
Automatic Dependant Surveillance-Broadcast
ADS-B is a surveillance technique that relies on aircraft broadcasting their identity, position and other information derived from on board systems.